Long-Term Follow-Up of Adults with Gender Identity Disorder

Arch Sex Behav. 2015 Jul;44(5):1321-9. doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0453-5. Epub 2015 Feb 18.


The aim of this study was to re-examine individuals with gender identity disorder after as long a period of time as possible. To meet the inclusion criterion, the legal recognition of participants' gender change via a legal name change had to date back at least 10 years. The sample comprised 71 participants (35 MtF and 36 FtM). The follow-up period was 10-24 years with a mean of 13.8 years (SD = 2.78). Instruments included a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods: Clinical interviews were conducted with the participants, and they completed a follow-up questionnaire as well as several standardized questionnaires they had already filled in when they first made contact with the clinic. Positive and desired changes were determined by all of the instruments: Participants reported high degrees of well-being and a good social integration. Very few participants were unemployed, most of them had a steady relationship, and they were also satisfied with their relationships with family and friends. Their overall evaluation of the treatment process for sex reassignment and its effectiveness in reducing gender dysphoria was positive. Regarding the results of the standardized questionnaires, participants showed significantly fewer psychological problems and interpersonal difficulties as well as a strongly increased life satisfaction at follow-up than at the time of the initial consultation. Despite these positive results, the treatment of transsexualism is far from being perfect.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gender Identity*
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation
  • Personal Satisfaction*
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Social Adjustment
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Transsexualism / psychology*