Infusion of iodine-based contrast agents into poly(p-dioxanone) as a radiopaque resorbable IVC filter

J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2015 Mar;26(3):124. doi: 10.1007/s10856-015-5460-0. Epub 2015 Feb 18.


To determine the feasibility of infusing resorbable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with iodine-based contrast agents to produce a radiopaque, computed tomography (CT)-visible IVC filter. Infused poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO) was obtained by incubating PPDO in different concentrations of 4-iodobenzoyl chloride (IBC) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). Characterizations of infused and nascent PPDO were done using elemental analysis, micro-CT, tensile strength analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Elemental analysis showed percentage loading of 1.07 ± 0.08 for IBC and 0.73 ± 0.01 for TIBA. The iodine loading remained the same within 2 weeks for TIBA but decreased to about 80 % with IBC when subjected to physiological conditions. Micro-CT images showed increased attenuation of the infused PPDO compared with the nascent PPDO. The Hounsfield unit values for infused and nascent sutures were 110 ± 40 and 153 ± 53 for PPDO infused with 2 mg/mL IBC and TIBA, respectively, but only 11.35 ± 2 for nascent PPDO. In contrast the HU for bone was 116 ± 37. Tensile strength analysis showed maximum loads of 1.01 ± 0.43 kg and 10.02 ± 0.54 kg for IBC and TIBA, respectively, and 10.10 ± 0.64 kg for nascent PPDO. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the PPDO surface did not change after coating and preliminary cytotoxicity assay showed no killing effect on Hela cells. PPDO infused with a contrast agent is significantly more radiopaque than nascent PPDO on micro-CT imaging. This radiopacity could allow the position and integrity of infused resorbable IVC filter to be monitored while it is in place, thus increasing its safety and efficacy as a medical device.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials*
  • Contrast Media / administration & dosage*
  • Dioxanes / administration & dosage*
  • Iodine / administration & dosage*
  • Polymers / administration & dosage*
  • Solubility
  • Surface Properties
  • Tensile Strength
  • Vena Cava Filters*
  • X-Ray Microtomography


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Contrast Media
  • Dioxanes
  • Polymers
  • poly-4-dioxan-2-one
  • Iodine