Prevalence and determinants of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in Benin City, Nigeria

Ann Afr Med. Apr-Jun 2015;14(2):75-81. doi: 10.4103/1596-3519.149877.


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health concern and may be complicated by cognitive impairment (CI) contributing significantly to morbidity and poor prognosis. This hospital-based study aimed at determining the prevalence and the determinants of CI among CKD patients in Nigeria.

Materials and methods: A total of 190 CKD patients and a 100 healthy control subjects completed this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data and history of common clinical features of CKD were obtained with the use of interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaires. The six-item cognitive impairment test was used for assessment of cognitive function of patients and controls.

Results: The prevalence of CI in Stages 3, 4, and 5 CKD patients were 24.0%, 41.6%, and 46.2%, respectively with overall prevalence of 35.3% while only 6.0% of controls had CI (P = 0.03). The most potent determinants of CI were low hematocrit (odds ratio [OR] =3.50), low serum bicarbonate levels (OR = 2.20), and high serum urea (OR = 2.11).

Conclusion: CKD is associated with significant CI in Nigerian patients especially with progressive deterioration in renal function. There is a need for regular evaluation of CKD patients for cognitive deficits.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cognition / physiology*
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires