Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2015;70(6):1608-21.
doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv018. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Chloroquine Analogues in Drug Discovery: New Directions of Uses, Mechanisms of Actions and Toxic Manifestations From Malaria to Multifarious Diseases

Affiliations
Review

Chloroquine Analogues in Drug Discovery: New Directions of Uses, Mechanisms of Actions and Toxic Manifestations From Malaria to Multifarious Diseases

Md Abdul Alim Al-Bari. J Antimicrob Chemother. .

Abstract

Antimalarial drugs (e.g. chloroquine and its close structural analogues) were developed primarily to treat malaria; however, they are beneficial for many dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and severe infectious diseases, for which they are used mostly today. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, two of the most fascinating drugs developed in the last 50 years, are increasingly recognized for their effectiveness in myriad non-malarial diseases. In advanced research, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been shown to have various immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, and currently have established roles in the management of rheumatic diseases, lupus erythematosus (different forms) and skin diseases, and in the treatment of different forms of cancer. Recently, chloroquine analogues have also been found to have metabolic, cardiovascular, antithrombotic and antineoplastic effects. This review is concerned with the lysosomotropic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinacrine and related analogues, and the current evidence for both their beneficial effects and potential adverse manifestations in various diseases.

Keywords: SLE; hydroxychloroquine; lysosomotropic actions; quinacrine; therapies; toxicity profiles.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 52 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

MeSH terms

Feedback