Clinical features of primary ciliary dyskinesia in Cyprus with emphasis on lobectomized patients

Respir Med. 2015 Mar;109(3):347-56. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2015.01.015. Epub 2015 Jan 31.


Background: Despite the manifestations of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in early life, the diagnosis is often much delayed. Since 1998 in Cyprus, we have established the only national diagnostic and clinical referral center for PCD.

Objective: To review the phenotypic features at presentation of PCD patients in Cyprus in relation to age at diagnosis, with emphasis on previously lobectomised patients.

Methods: The medical records of the diagnosed PCD patients were retrospectively reviewed to obtain clinical data on presentation.

Results: Thirty patients, aged 13.9 years (range 0.1, 58.4 years), were diagnosed with PCD. Twelve of them presented after the age of 18. The most common manifestations were chronic cough (100%), chronic rhinorrhea (96.7%), sputum production (92.9%), laterality defects (63.3%), a history of pneumonia (53.3%) and neonatal respiratory distress (50%). A history of lobectomy in the past was recorded in 16.7% (5 patients). Patients who presented in adulthood had significantly higher frequency of lobectomy (41.7% vs 0%, p-value = 0.006) and had more frequently low FEV1 (58.3% vs 0%, p-value = 0.015) than those who presented before. Serial measurements of FEV1 and FVC indicated significantly lower intercepts in lobectomised compared to the adult non-lobectomised patients both in terms of FEV1 (-4.90 vs -1.80, p-value = 0.022) and FVC (-5.43 vs -1.91, p-value = 0.029) z-score levels. Change in FEV1 and FVC across time was not statistically significant in either group.

Conclusions: PCD often remains undiagnosed up to adulthood accompanied by appearance of advanced lung disease. Performance of lobectomies seems to be a poor prognostic factor for PCD in adulthood.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Lobectomy; Lung function; Primary ciliary dyskinesia.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biopsy
  • Body Mass Index
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cough / etiology
  • Cyprus / epidemiology
  • Delayed Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Kartagener Syndrome / complications
  • Kartagener Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Kartagener Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Kartagener Syndrome / pathology*
  • Kartagener Syndrome / surgery
  • Male
  • Medical Records Systems, Computerized
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumonectomy* / methods
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Spirometry