It has been hypothesized on the basis of animal models of epilepsy that abnormal neural activity in epilepsy may be related to reorganized neural circuits that facilitate epileptogenesis. Little evidence of this was available for human epilepsy. This paper provides the first evidence of such reorganization of a hippocampal seizure focus in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This reorganization involves the selective loss of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive interneurons, and axonal sprouting of other neuropeptide Y neurons and dynorphin-A immunoreactive granule cells. This set of changes is not exactly like those that are reported in animal models.