Effect of Non-Soy Legume Consumption on Inflammation and Serum Adiponectin Levels Among First-Degree Relatives of Patients With Diabetes: A Randomized, Crossover Study

Nutrition. 2015 Mar;31(3):459-65. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.09.015. Epub 2014 Oct 18.


Objective: First-degree relatives of patients with diabetes are at more risk for endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a non-soy legume-enriched diet on inflammatory biomarkers and serum adiponectin levels among first-degree relatives of these patients.

Methods: Twenty-six participants (14 women and 12 men) with a family history of diabetes were recruited to this randomized, crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to a legume-enriched or a habitual diet for 6 wk that was separated by a 2-wk washout. The inflammatory markers-high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and serum levels of adiponectin-were measured at the beginning and the end of each intervention period according to the standard protocol.

Results: Energy intake of participants was not statistically different between the two diets (1821.5 ± 100.11 versus 1788.2 ± 92.68 kcal/d, respectively). After consumption of a legume diet, percent change of hs-CRP reduced significantly compared with consumption of a habitual diet (-4.86% ± 1.86% versus 3.55% ± 1.97%, P = 0.002) and among the women in the study (-12.96% ± 1.96% versus 3.24% ± 2.65%, P = 0.004). The percent change of other inflammatory markers and serum concentrations of adiponectin were not significantly different between the two diet groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that a legume-enriched diet significantly reduced the hs-CRP concentrations in first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes after 6 wk of intervention compared with a habitual diet.

Keywords: Adiponectin; At risk for diabetes; Clinical trial; Inflammatory markers; Legume.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / prevention & control
  • Fabaceae*
  • Family*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / diet therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Soy Foods


  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • C-Reactive Protein