Purpose: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type-I (LAD-I) is caused by mutations in the ITGB2 gene, encoding the β2-subunit of β2-integrin (CD18) which leads to markedly reduced expression of CD18 on leukocytes resulting into recurrent life threatening infections. Here we aim to identify the molecular defects underlying LAD-I in Indian patients and correlate with the clinical presentation.
Methods: Blood was collected from 30 patients and their parents for absolute neutrophil count, expression of CD18 and CD11 by flow cytometry and DNA extraction. PCR and DNA sequencing of the ITGB2 gene was done for mutation characterization.
Results: Phenotypically, 22 patients were LAD-I(0), 1 was LAD-I(-) and 7 were LAD-I(+) showing no expression and reduced expression of CD18 respectively. Nine novel mutations in 15 patients and 11 known mutations in 16 patients were detected. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for 5 families.
Conclusion: In this study 30 patients were phenotypically and genotypically evaluated for a less known disease LAD-I. Unavailability of curative options to majority of the patients and high cost of supportive care emphasize the need to increase awareness about a suspicious case so that timely management can be given to the patient and prenatal diagnosis can be offered to their families.
Keywords: CD18; Flow cytometry; ITGB2 gene; LAD-1; Prenatal diagnosis; β(2) integrin.
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