Normal values of Hertel exophthalmometry in a Chinese Han population from Shenyang, Northeast China

Sci Rep. 2015 Feb 23;5:8526. doi: 10.1038/srep08526.


Aims of this study were to determine the normal range of absolute and relative Hertel exophthalmometric values (EVs) in a Chinese Han population. This population-based cross-sectional study consisted of 2010 healthy Han Chinese (1051 females and 959 males) aged between 8-87 years living in Shenyang, Northeast China, including 515 children (aged 8-14 years), 517 teenagers (aged 15-19 years), 582 adults (aged 20-69 years) and 396 elderly (aged 70-87 years). A Hertel exophthalmometer was used by the same physician for the measurement of EV and inter-orbital distance (IOD). For the entire study population, the Hertel EVs ranged from 10 mm to 22 mm; the mean EVs for the left eye (OS) and right eye (OD) were 15.0 ± 1.9 mm and 15.0 ± 2.0 mm, respectively; the upper normal limits of the EVs (mean + 2 SD) for OS and OD were 18.8 mm and 19.0 mm, respectively; the mean relative EV was 0.20 ± 0.43 mm. Age, but not sex, had a significant effect on the EV. We concluded that our study provides normative ophthalmic data in a Chinese Han population. The normal EVs, asymmetry and IOD values have been established for clinical reference.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Asians
  • Child
  • China
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Exophthalmos / epidemiology
  • Exophthalmos / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ocular Physiological Phenomena
  • Reference Values
  • Sex Factors
  • Young Adult