Epidemiology of hypertension in CKD

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2015 Mar;22(2):88-95. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2014.09.004.


Both hypertension (HTN) and CKD are serious interrelated global public health problems. Nearly 30% and 15% of US adults have HTN and CKD, respectively. Because HTN may cause or result from CKD, HTN prevalence is higher and control more difficult with worse kidney function. Etiology of CKD, presence and degree of albuminuria, and genetic factors all influence HTN severity and prevalence. In addition, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors influence HTN prevalence and control. There are racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence, treatment, risks, and outcomes of HTN in patients with CKD. Control of blood pressure (BP) in Hispanic and African Americans with CKD is worse than it is whites. There are disparities in the patterns of treatment and rates of progression of CKD in patients with HTN. The presence and severity of CKD increase treatment resistance. HTN is also extremely prevalent in patients receiving hemodialysis, and optimal targets for BP control are being elucidated. Although the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN in CKD patients is improving, control of BP in patients at all stages of CKD remains suboptimal.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Epidemiology; Health disparities; Hypertension.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Albuminuria / diagnosis
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Disease Management
  • Disease Progression
  • Ethnicity
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / ethnology
  • Hypertension* / physiopathology
  • Hypertension* / therapy
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / ethnology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / etiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / physiopathology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / prevention & control
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Antihypertensive Agents