Reducing salt intake for prevention of cardiovascular disease--times are changing

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2015 Mar;22(2):108-15. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2014.12.002.


The evidence relating blood pressure to salt intake in humans originates from population studies and randomized clinical trials of interventions on dietary salt intake. Estimates from meta-analyses of trials in normotensive subjects generally are similar to estimates derived from prospective population studies (+1.7 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure per 100-mmol increment in 24-hour urinary sodium). This estimate, however, does not translate into an increased risk of incident hypertension in subjects consuming a high salt diet. Prospective studies relating health outcomes to 24-hour urinary sodium excretion produced inconsistent results. Taken together, available evidence does not support the current recommendations of a generalized and indiscriminate reduction of salt intake at the population level, although the blood pressure-lowering effect of dietary sodium restriction might be of value in hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Blood pressure; Cardiovascular mortality; Cardiovascular outcomes; Salt; Sodium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted* / methods
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted* / trends
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / diet therapy
  • Hypertension* / metabolism
  • Hypertension* / physiopathology
  • Kidney / physiology*
  • Kidney Concentrating Ability
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances / trends
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / metabolism*


  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary