The evidence relating blood pressure to salt intake in humans originates from population studies and randomized clinical trials of interventions on dietary salt intake. Estimates from meta-analyses of trials in normotensive subjects generally are similar to estimates derived from prospective population studies (+1.7 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure per 100-mmol increment in 24-hour urinary sodium). This estimate, however, does not translate into an increased risk of incident hypertension in subjects consuming a high salt diet. Prospective studies relating health outcomes to 24-hour urinary sodium excretion produced inconsistent results. Taken together, available evidence does not support the current recommendations of a generalized and indiscriminate reduction of salt intake at the population level, although the blood pressure-lowering effect of dietary sodium restriction might be of value in hypertensive patients.
Keywords: Blood pressure; Cardiovascular mortality; Cardiovascular outcomes; Salt; Sodium.
Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.