The triad of epithelial derived cytokines, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP are important for the initiation and development of pulmonary immune responses to environmental stimuli. Data from experiments using mouse models provide compelling evidence for their involvement in both innate and adaptive immunity to drive type-2 responses, allergic inflammation and airway remodelling. These cytokines are known to be expressed in human lung tissue and immune cells, however their involvement in mediating allergic pulmonary responses in patients is less clear than in murine models of disease. This article focuses on evidence for the role of IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in human allergic disease and discusses their potential as therapeutic targets for severe asthma.
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