Self-control behaviors during the learning of a cascade juggling task

Hum Mov Sci. 2015 Jun:41:9-19. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Feb 20.


This study examined the self-control behaviors of participants learning a 3-ball cascade juggle. Participants chose when they would receive one of four types of instructional assistance: (a) instructions; (b) video demonstration; (c) knowledge of performance (KP); and (d) knowledge of results (KR). Juggling proficiency was divided into three categories based on catches per attempt during retention and transfer testing. In general, participants decreased their requests for instructions and video demonstration throughout acquisition. For the most proficient performers, requests for KR increased over practice. Post-experimental interviews revealed that participants requested KR after primarily good attempts and KP after both good and bad attempts. Participant-reported reasons for requesting feedback included the confirmation of success (KR) and identification of technique flaws (KP). Overall, the findings suggest that self-control behaviors are more complex than previously demonstrated and that participants use self-control differently depending upon the type of assistance available, individual preferences, and learning needs.

Keywords: Feedback; Knowledge of results; Motor processes; Perceptual motor learning; Self control; Self regulation.

MeSH terms

  • Achievement
  • Adolescent
  • Feedback
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knowledge of Results, Psychological
  • Learning*
  • Male
  • Motivation*
  • Motor Skills*
  • Perception
  • Practice, Psychological*
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Retention, Psychology
  • Self-Control*
  • Video Recording
  • Young Adult