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, 78 (1), 143-51

Familial Periodontal Disease in the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques

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Familial Periodontal Disease in the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques

Octavio A Gonzalez et al. Am J Primatol.

Abstract

Substantial ongoing research continues to explore the contribution of genetics and environment to the onset, extent and severity of periodontal disease(s). Existing evidence supports that periodontal disease appears to have an increased prevalence in family units with a member having aggressive periodontitis. We have been using the nonhuman primate as a model of periodontal disease for over 25 years with these species demonstrating naturally occurring periodontal disease that increases with age. This report details our findings from evaluation of periodontal disease in skulls from 97 animals (5-31 years of age) derived from the skeletons of the rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Periodontal disease was evaluated by determining the distance from the base of the alveolar bone defect to the cemento-enamel junction on 1st/2nd premolars and 1st/2nd molars from all four quadrants. The results demonstrated an increasing extent and severity of periodontitis with aging across the population of animals beyond only compensatory eruption. Importantly, irrespective of age, extensive heterogeneity in disease expression was observed among the animals. Linking these variations to multi-generational matriarchal family units supported familial susceptibility of periodontitis. As the current generations of animals that are descendants from these matrilines are alive, studies can be conducted to explore an array of underlying factors that could account for susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease.

Keywords: familial risk; nonhuman primates; periodontitis.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors acknowledge no conflict of interest with the support for this research project.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Extraoral photograph of approach to evaluating periodontal disease in the skulls. Animal is 065, that died at 20.7 years of age in 1973. The red lines denote the measures obtained from the cementoenamel junction to the bone height on the distal and mesial buccal surfaces at mandibular and maxillary 1st and 2nd premolar and molar teeth. Measures were obtained from all four quadrants. The ruler is in centimeters.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Regression analysis of expression of the extent of periodontitis [Mean bone defect (mm)] related to age of animals in the 3 matrilines. Each point denotes an animal within the family and the matching colored lines describe a linear regression of the relationships.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Comparison of disease expression across all ages in each of the family units using ANOVA with Tukey HSD. The bars are group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SE. (A) Extent of disease described by mouth mean bone defects (BD Tot; F=5.12, df1, P=0.0077), as well as similar measures limited to the maxillary (BD Max; F=4.79, df1, P=0.0104) and mandibular (BD Mand; F=4.42, df1, P=0.0145) quadrants. (B) Severity of disease described by frequency of sites with bone defects less than (<)3 mm (F=2.73, df1, P=0.0701), greater than (>)4 mm (F=6.12, df1, P=0.0031) and 5 mm (F=12.34, df1, P<0.0001). (C) Frequency of animals across the age groups in each family unit demonstrating 1 or more bone defects greater than or equal to 5 mm using Chi-square analysis with Yates correction (22 vs. 065; χ2=7.641, df1, P=0.0057; 065 vs. 116; χ2=6.940, df1, P=0.0084).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Comparison of disease expression across all ages in each of the family units using ANOVA with Tukey HSD. The bars are group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SE. (A) Extent of disease described by mouth mean bone defects (BD Tot; F=5.12, df1, P=0.0077), as well as similar measures limited to the maxillary (BD Max; F=4.79, df1, P=0.0104) and mandibular (BD Mand; F=4.42, df1, P=0.0145) quadrants. (B) Severity of disease described by frequency of sites with bone defects less than (<)3 mm (F=2.73, df1, P=0.0701), greater than (>)4 mm (F=6.12, df1, P=0.0031) and 5 mm (F=12.34, df1, P<0.0001). (C) Frequency of animals across the age groups in each family unit demonstrating 1 or more bone defects greater than or equal to 5 mm using Chi-square analysis with Yates correction (22 vs. 065; χ2=7.641, df1, P=0.0057; 065 vs. 116; χ2=6.940, df1, P=0.0084).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Comparison of disease expression across all ages in each of the family units using ANOVA with Tukey HSD. The bars are group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SE. (A) Extent of disease described by mouth mean bone defects (BD Tot; F=5.12, df1, P=0.0077), as well as similar measures limited to the maxillary (BD Max; F=4.79, df1, P=0.0104) and mandibular (BD Mand; F=4.42, df1, P=0.0145) quadrants. (B) Severity of disease described by frequency of sites with bone defects less than (<)3 mm (F=2.73, df1, P=0.0701), greater than (>)4 mm (F=6.12, df1, P=0.0031) and 5 mm (F=12.34, df1, P<0.0001). (C) Frequency of animals across the age groups in each family unit demonstrating 1 or more bone defects greater than or equal to 5 mm using Chi-square analysis with Yates correction (22 vs. 065; χ2=7.641, df1, P=0.0057; 065 vs. 116; χ2=6.940, df1, P=0.0084).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Disease expression in the family units stratified based upon age categories of the members evaluated using ANOVA with Tukey HSD. The bars are group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SE. (A) mean bone defects (BD) in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=3.56, df1, P=0.0395); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=2.84, df1, P=0.0753); greater than (>)17 years (F=1.22, df1, P=0.312), (B) frequency of sites with bone defects greater than or equal to 4 mm in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=1.69, df1, P=0.1997); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=6.85, df1, P=0.0038); greater than (>)17 years (F=2.72, df1, P=0.084), and (C) frequency of sites with bone defects greater than or equal to 5 mm in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=1.83, df1, P=0.1759); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=4.13, df1, P=0.0270); greater than (>)17 years (F=3.84, df1, P=0.0360).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Disease expression in the family units stratified based upon age categories of the members evaluated using ANOVA with Tukey HSD. The bars are group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SE. (A) mean bone defects (BD) in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=3.56, df1, P=0.0395); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=2.84, df1, P=0.0753); greater than (>)17 years (F=1.22, df1, P=0.312), (B) frequency of sites with bone defects greater than or equal to 4 mm in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=1.69, df1, P=0.1997); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=6.85, df1, P=0.0038); greater than (>)17 years (F=2.72, df1, P=0.084), and (C) frequency of sites with bone defects greater than or equal to 5 mm in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=1.83, df1, P=0.1759); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=4.13, df1, P=0.0270); greater than (>)17 years (F=3.84, df1, P=0.0360).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Disease expression in the family units stratified based upon age categories of the members evaluated using ANOVA with Tukey HSD. The bars are group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SE. (A) mean bone defects (BD) in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=3.56, df1, P=0.0395); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=2.84, df1, P=0.0753); greater than (>)17 years (F=1.22, df1, P=0.312), (B) frequency of sites with bone defects greater than or equal to 4 mm in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=1.69, df1, P=0.1997); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=6.85, df1, P=0.0038); greater than (>)17 years (F=2.72, df1, P=0.084), and (C) frequency of sites with bone defects greater than or equal to 5 mm in 5-less than (<)10 years (F=1.83, df1, P=0.1759); 10-less than (<)17 years (F=4.13, df1, P=0.0270); greater than (>)17 years (F=3.84, df1, P=0.0360).

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