Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2015 Feb;35(1):5-11.
doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1544242. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

Biophysical Mechanisms of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Affiliations
Review

Biophysical Mechanisms of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Lee Ann Young et al. Semin Neurol. .

Abstract

Despite years of effort to prevent traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), the occurrence of TBI in the United States alone has reached epidemic proportions. When an external force is applied to the head, it is converted into stresses that must be absorbed into the brain or redirected by a helmet or other protective equipment. Complex interactions of the head, neck, and jaw kinematics result in strains in the brain. Even relatively mild mechanical trauma to these tissues can initiate a neurochemical cascade that leads to TBI. Civilians and warfighters can experience head injuries in both combat and noncombat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic and blunt impact, acceleration, and blast. It is critical to understand the physics created by these threats to develop meaningful improvements to clinical care, injury prevention, and mitigation. Here the authors review the current state of understanding of the complex loading conditions that lead to TBI and characterize how these loads are transmitted through soft tissue, the skull and into the brain, resulting in TBI. In addition, gaps in knowledge and injury thresholds are reviewed, as these must be addressed to better design strategies that reduce TBI incidence and severity.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 5 articles

MeSH terms

Feedback