Background: The observations of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) occurring in the setting of cancer suggest that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity may in some cases be paraneoplastic.
Results: We describe a 72-year-old patient who developed a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis associated with AQP4 autoantibodies in the setting of a lung adenocarcinoma recurrence. AQP4 expression was demonstrated in tumor cells. IgG in patient's cerebrospinal fluid bound to tumor cells co-localizing with AQP4 immunoreactivity.
Conclusions and relevance: This case expands the spectrum of paraneoplastic AQP4 autoimmunity highlighting the importance of considering an oncological screening in patients with late-onset NMOSD.
Keywords: Paraneoplastic; neuromyelitis optica.
© The Author(s), 2015.