Oxidative and other posttranslational modifications in extracellular vesicle biology

Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015 Apr;40:8-16. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.02.012. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic vesicles, are phospholipid bilayer surrounded structures secreted by cells universally, in an evolutionarily conserved fashion. Posttranslational modifications such as oxidation, citrullination, phosphorylation and glycosylation play diverse roles in extracellular vesicle biology. Posttranslational modifications orchestrate the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles. The signals extracellular vesicles transmit between cells also often function via modulating posttranslational modifications of target molecules, given that extracellular vesicles are carriers of several active enzymes catalysing posttranslational modifications. Posttranslational modifications of extracellular vesicles can also contribute to disease pathology by e.g. amplifying inflammation, generating neoepitopes or carrying neoepitopes themselves.

Keywords: Citrullination; Exosome; Extracellular vesicle; Microvesicle; Oxidation; Posttranslational modification.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Citrulline / metabolism
  • Extracellular Vesicles / chemistry
  • Extracellular Vesicles / metabolism*
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Ubiquitination

Substances

  • Citrulline