Advances in the development of influenza virus vaccines

Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015 Mar;14(3):167-82. doi: 10.1038/nrd4529.


Influenza virus infections are a major public health concern and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective countermeasure against infection but need to be reformulated almost every year owing to antigenic drift. Furthermore, these vaccines do not protect against novel pandemic strains, and the timely production of pandemic vaccines remains problematic because of the limitations of current technology. Several improvements have been made recently to enhance immune protection induced by seasonal and pandemic vaccines, and to speed up production in case of a pandemic. Importantly, vaccine constructs that induce broad or even universal influenza virus protection are currently in preclinical and clinical development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Viral / immunology
  • Civil Defense
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Orthomyxoviridae / immunology*
  • Pandemics


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines