Genes specifically modulated in sensitized skins allow the detection of sensitizers in a reconstructed human skin model. Development of the SENS-IS assay

Toxicol In Vitro. 2015 Jun;29(4):787-802. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2015.02.012. Epub 2015 Feb 24.


Analysis of genes modulated during the sensitization process either on mice (LLNA) or human (blisters) combined with data mining has allowed the definition of a comprehensive panel of sensitization biomarkers. This set of genes includes already identified markers such as the ARE family and others not yet associated with the sensitization process (the so-called SENS-IS gene subset). The expression of this set of genes has been measured on reconstituted human epidermis models (Episkin) exposed to various sensitizers and non-sensitizers. Fine analysis of their expression pattern indicates that it is the number of modulated genes rather than the intensity of up-regulation that correlates best with the sensitization potential of a chemical. Moreover, sensitizers that are weak inductors of ARE genes tend to be relevant modulators of the SENS-IS subset. By combining the expression data obtained with both gene subsets, it is now possible to identify a wide variety of sensitizers on a test system (in vitro reconstructed human epidermis) that is very similar to the in vivo situation and compatible with a large variety of test substance characteristics.

Keywords: Alternatives to animal tests; Reconstituted epidermis; SENS-IS; Skin sensitization; Toxicogenomics.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Testing Alternatives
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Cysteine / chemistry
  • Epidermis / drug effects
  • Gene Expression / drug effects*
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • Irritants / toxicity*
  • Mice
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin Irritancy Tests / methods*
  • Toxicogenetics


  • Biomarkers
  • Genetic Markers
  • Irritants
  • Cysteine