Evaluation of photodegradation, phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of ofloxacin in ointments with sunscreens and in solutions

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015 Mar;144:76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.01.015. Epub 2015 Feb 17.


Fluoroquinolones are widely used anti-bacterial agents that are known to exhibit moderate to severe phototoxicity. Furthermore some of them reveal photogenotoxicity under UV irradiation. Incidence of side effects due to light exposure may be augmented, if the medicament is used topically. The main goal of this work was to compare the extent of photodegradation of ofloxacin in ointments with various excipients: hydrated or non-hydrated base and the addition of sunscreens: bisoctrizole (Tinosorb M) and bemotrizinol (Tinosorb S). The next goal of present work was the analysis of phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of ofloxacin photodegradation products in tested ointments and in solutions with the umu-test, the test of mitotic gene conversion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 and the micronucleus assay with V79 Chinese hamster cell line. At the same time an attempt was made to determinate the photodegradation products of ofloxacin in different unguents variants. We observed a significant photoprotective effect in ointment with Tinosorb M. We did not evaluated relevant differences regarding the genotoxicity and toxicity of unguents. However, the pre-irradiated ofloxacin solutions in comparison to samples stored in the dark were significantly more genotoxic to bacteria, slightly increased the number of micronuclei in V79 cell line and were toxic to the yeast strain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cricetulus
  • Gene Conversion / drug effects
  • Gene Conversion / radiation effects
  • Micronucleus Tests
  • Mutagens / chemistry
  • Mutagens / toxicity
  • Ofloxacin / chemistry*
  • Ofloxacin / toxicity*
  • Ointments / chemistry*
  • Photolysis*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / drug effects
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / radiation effects
  • Solutions
  • Sunscreening Agents / chemistry*
  • Ultraviolet Rays*
  • Water / chemistry


  • Mutagens
  • Ointments
  • Solutions
  • Sunscreening Agents
  • Water
  • Ofloxacin