A somatic MAP3K3 mutation is associated with verrucous venous malformation

Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Mar 5;96(3):480-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.007. Epub 2015 Feb 26.


Verrucous venous malformation (VVM), also called "verrucous hemangioma," is a non-hereditary, congenital, vascular anomaly comprised of aberrant clusters of malformed dermal venule-like channels underlying hyperkeratotic skin. We tested the hypothesis that VVM lesions arise as a consequence of a somatic mutation. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on VVM tissue from six unrelated individuals and looked for somatic mutations affecting the same gene in specimens from multiple persons. We observed mosaicism for a missense mutation (NM_002401.3, c.1323C>G; NP_002392, p.Iso441Met) in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) in three of six individuals. We confirmed the presence of this mutation via droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in the three subjects and found the mutation in three additional specimens from another four participants. Mutant allele frequencies ranged from 6% to 19% in affected tissue. We did not observe this mutant allele in unaffected tissue or in affected tissue from individuals with other types of vascular anomalies. Studies using global and conditional Map3k3 knockout mice have previously implicated MAP3K3 in vascular development. MAP3K3 dysfunction probably causes VVM in humans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alleles
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Keratosis / genetics
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3 / genetics*
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Skin Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Young Adult


  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3
  • MAP3K3 protein, human