The advances made in the treatment of HIV-1 infection represent a major success of modern biomedical research, prolonging healthy life and reducing virus transmission. There remain, however, many challenges relating primarily to side effects of long-term therapy and the ever-present danger of the emergence of drug-resistant strains. To counter these threats, there is a continuing need for new and better drugs, ideally targeting multiple independent steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle. The most successful current drugs target the viral enzymes: protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN). In this review, we outline the advances made in targeting the Gag protein and its mature products, particularly capsid and nucleocapsid, and highlight possible targets for future pharmacological intervention.