Background: Given the success of immunotherapeutic approaches in hematologic malignancies, the COG designed a phase I/II study to determine whether the addition of epratuzumab (anti-CD22) to an established chemotherapy platform improves rates of second remission (CR2) in pediatric patients with B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and early bone marrow relapse.
Procedure: Therapy consisted of three established blocks of re-induction chemotherapy. Epratuzumab (360 mg/m(2)/dose) was combined with chemotherapy on weekly × 4 (B1) and twice weekly × 4 [eight doses] (B2) schedules during the first re-induction block. Remission rates and minimal residual disease (MRD) status were compared to historical rates observed with the identical chemotherapy platform alone.
Results: CR2 was achieved in 65 and 66%, of the evaluable B1 (n = 54) and B2 patients (n = 60), respectively; unchanged from that observed historically without epratuzumab. Rates of MRD negativity (<0.01%) were 31% in B1 (P = 0.4128) and 39% in B2 patients (P = 0.1731), compared to 25% in historical controls. The addition of epratuzumab was well tolerated, with a similar toxicity profile to that observed with the re-induction chemotherapy platform regimen alone.
Conclusions: Epratuzumab was well tolerated in combination with re-induction chemotherapy. While CR2 rates were not improved compared to historical controls treated with chemotherapy alone, there was a non-significant trend towards improvement in MRD response with the addition of epratuzumab (twice weekly for eight doses) to re-induction chemotherapy.
Keywords: epratuzumab; monoclonal antibody; relapsed ALL.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.