Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a biologically and clinically heterogeneous disease with marked genomic instability and variable response to conventional R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) chemotherapy. More clinically aggressive cases of DLBCLs have high level of circulating interleukin 10 (IL10) cytokine and evidence of activated intracellular STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling. We investigated the role of IL10 and its surface receptor in supporting the neoplastic phenotype of DLBCLs. We determined that IL10RA gene is amplified in 21% and IL10RB gene in 10% of primary DLBCLs. Gene expression of IL10, IL10RA and IL10RB was markedly elevated in DLBCLs. We hypothesized that DLBCLs depend for their proliferation and survival on IL10-STAT3 signaling and that blocking the IL10 receptor (IL10R) would induce cell death. We used anti-IL10R blocking antibody, which resulted in a dose-dependent cell death in all tested activated B-cell-like subtype of DLBCL cell lines and primary DLBCLs. Response of germinal center B-cell-like subtype of DLBCL cell lines to anti-IL10R antibody varied from sensitive to resistant. Cells underwent cell cycle arrest, followed by induction of apoptosis. Cell death depended on inhibition of STAT3 and, to a lesser extent, STAT1 signaling. Anti-IL10R treatment resulted in interruption of IL10-IL10R autostimulatory loop. We thus propose that IL10R is a novel therapeutic target in DLBCLs.