Synthesis and enzymatic studies of bisubstrate analogues for farnesyl diphosphate synthase

J Org Chem. 2015 Apr 17;80(8):3902-13. doi: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b00202. Epub 2015 Mar 26.


Farnesyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the sequential chain elongation reactions between isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to form geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and between IPP and GPP to give farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). Bisubstrate analogues containing the allylic and homoallylic substrates were synthesized by joining fragments for IPP and the allylic diphosphates with a C-C bond between the methyl group at C3 in IPP and the Z-methyl group at C3 in DMAPP (3-OPP) and GPP (4-OPP), respectively. These constructs placed substantial limits on the conformational space available to the analogues relative to the two substrates. The key features of the synthesis of bisubstrate analogues 3-OPP and 4-OPP are a regioselective C-alkylation of the dianion of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (5), a Z-selective cuprate addition of alkyl groups to an α,β-alkynyl ester intermediate, and differential activation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols in the analogues, followed by a simultaneous displacement of the leaving groups with tris(tetra-n-butylammonium) hydrogen diphosphate to give the corresponding bisdiphosphate analogues. The bisubstrate analogues were substrates for FPP synthase, giving novel seven-membered ring analogues of GPP and FPP. The catalytic efficiencies for cyclization of 3-OPP and 4-OPP were similar to those for chain elongation with IPP and DMAPP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Butanols / chemistry*
  • Catalysis
  • Cyclization
  • Geranyltranstransferase / chemical synthesis*
  • Geranyltranstransferase / chemistry
  • Polyisoprenyl Phosphates / chemistry*
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / chemistry*
  • Sesquiterpenes / chemistry*
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Butanols
  • Polyisoprenyl Phosphates
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • Sesquiterpenes
  • tris(tetra-n-butylammonium)hydrogen diphosphate
  • farnesyl pyrophosphate
  • Geranyltranstransferase
  • 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol