Glycemic Variability Is Associated with Frequency of Blood Glucose Testing and Bolus: Post Hoc Analysis Results from the ProAct Study

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2015 Jun;17(6):392-7. doi: 10.1089/dia.2014.0278. Epub 2015 Mar 3.


Introduction: The ProAct study has shown that a pump switch to the Accu-Chek(®) Combo system (Roche Diagnostics Deutschland GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) in type 1 diabetes patients results in stable glycemic control with significant improvements in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with unsatisfactory baseline HbA1c and shorter pump usage time.

Patients and methods: In this post hoc analysis of the ProAct database, we investigated the glycemic control and glycemic variability at baseline by determination of several established parameters and scores (HbA1c, hypoglycemia frequency, J-score, Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Indexes, and Index of Glycemic Control) in participants with different daily bolus and blood glucose measurement frequencies (less than four day, four or five per day, and more than five per day, in both cases). The data were derived from up to 299 patients (172 females, 127 males; age [mean±SD], 39.4±15.2 years; pump treatment duration, 7.0±5.2 years).

Results: Participants with frequent glucose readings had better glycemic control than those with few readings (more than five readings per day vs. less than four readings per day: HbA1c, 7.2±1.1% vs. 8.0±0.9%; mean daily blood glucose, 151±22 mg/dL vs. 176±30 mg/dL; percentage of readings per month >300 mg/dL, 10±4% vs. 14±5%; percentage of readings in target range [80-180 mg/dL], 59% vs. 48% [P<0.05 in all cases]) and had a lower glycemic variability (J-score, 49±13 vs. 71±25 [P<0.05]; Hyperglycemia Index, 0.9±0.5 vs. 1.9±1.2 [P<0.05]; Index of Glycemic Control, 1.9±0.8 vs. 3.1±1.6 [P<0.05]; Hypoglycemia Index, 0.9±0.8 vs. 1.2±1.3 [not significant]). Frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose was associated with a higher number of bolus applications (6.1±2.2 boluses/day vs. 4.5±2.0 boluses/day [P<0.05]). Therefore, a similar but less pronounced effect on glycemic variability in favor of more daily bolus applications was observed (more than five vs. less than four bolues per day: J-score, 57±17 vs. 63±25 [not significant]; Hypoglycemia Index, 1.0±1.0 vs. 1.5±1.4 [P<0.05]; Hyperglycemia Index, 1.3±0.6 vs. 1.6±1.1 [not significant]; Index of Glycemic Control, 2.3±1.1 vs. 3.1±1.7 [P<0.05]).

Conclusions: Pump users who perform frequent daily glucose readings have a better glycemic control with lower glycemic variability.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / instrumentation
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / statistics & numerical data
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemia / etiology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Time Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human