Effects of Calcium Plus Vitamin D Supplementation on Anthropometric Measurements and Blood Pressure in Vitamin D Insufficient People With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(4):281-9. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.905761. Epub 2015 Mar 4.


Background: Up to 75% of the risk of type 2 diabetes is attributable to obesity. Therefore, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for management of diabetes.

Objective: This study was performed to assess the effects of vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation on anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in vitamin D insufficient people with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: One hundred eighteen patients with diabetes were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. All subjects were randomly assigned into 4 groups receiving (1) 50,000 IU/wk vitamin D3 plus (equal to 7143 IU/d) calcium placebo; (2) 1000 mg/d calcium plus vitamin D3 placebo; (3) 50,000 IU/wk vitamin D3 (equal to 7143 IU/d) plus 1000 mg/d calcium; or (4) vitamin D3 placebo plus calcium placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were assessed at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention.

Results: A greater reduction in body mass index was observed in calcium plus vitamin D group than other groups (p = 0.03). Comparison of changes in waist circumference among 4 groups revealed no significant difference in crude model (p = 0.21) and when the effect of confounders was taken into account (p = 0.08). Calcium supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in hip circumference compared to other groups (p <0.001). Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased in the calcium plus vitamin D group compared to placebo (-7.3 ± 8.7 mmHg vs 0.5 ± 8.2 mmHg; p = 0.001). However, calcium and vitamin D supplementation had no significant effects on diastolic blood pressure.

Conclusion: Calcium-vitamin D3 cosupplementation can have beneficial effect on body mass index (BMI), hip circumference, and systolic blood pressure in vitamin D-insufficient type 2 diabetics.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01662193.

Keywords: anthropometric measurements; blood pressure; calcium; type 2 diabetes; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weights and Measures*
  • Calcium, Dietary / pharmacology
  • Calcium, Dietary / therapeutic use*
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacology
  • Cholecalciferol / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Disease Management
  • Female
  • Hip
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / drug therapy
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy*
  • Vitamins / pharmacology
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Vitamins
  • Cholecalciferol

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01662193