Effect of dietary gluten on dendritic cells and innate immune subsets in BALB/c and NOD mice

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 4;10(3):e0118618. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118618. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

The innate immune system is known to play an important role in oral tolerance to dietary antigens. This is important in development of celiac disease (CD) but may also be important in type 1 diabetes (T1D), and could potentially explain the reduced incidence of T1D in mice receiving a gluten-free (GF) diet. The direct in vivo effect of gluten on innate cells, and particularly dendritic cells (DC) is not sufficiently clarified. Therefore, we wished to investigate the innate cell populations of spontaneous diabetic NOD mice and healthy BALB/c mice kept on a GF or a standard (STD) gluten containing diet. We studied, by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), if dietary gluten induces changes in the activation of DCs and distribution of selected innate cells in lymphoid, pancreatic and intestinal tissues in BALB/c and NOD mice. We found that a GF diet increased the percentage of macrophages in BALB/c spleen and of CD11c+ DCs in BALB/c and NOD spleen. Strictly gluten-free (SGF) diet increased the percentage of CD103+ DCs in BALB/c mice and decreased percentages of CD11b+ DCs in mesenteric and pancreatic lymph nodes in BALB/c mice. SGF diet in BALB/c mice also decreased DC expression of CD40, CCR7 and MHC-II in pancreatic lymph nodes. In conclusion, GF diet changes the composition of the innate immune system in BALB/c and NOD mice and increases expression of DC activation markers in NOD mice. These results contribute to the explanation of the low diabetes incidence in GF NOD mice. This mechanism may be important in development of type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Dietary Proteins / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Glutens / adverse effects*
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / metabolism
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects*
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred NOD
  • Receptors, CCR7 / metabolism

Substances

  • Antigens, CD
  • Biomarkers
  • Ccr7 protein, mouse
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Receptors, CCR7
  • Glutens

Grant support

The study was funded by “Kirsten & Freddy Johansens foundation”, http://www.kf-j.dk. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.