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, 10 (3), e0117421
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High Rates of Ofloxacin Resistance in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Among Both New and Previously Treated Patients in Tamil Nadu, South India

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High Rates of Ofloxacin Resistance in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Among Both New and Previously Treated Patients in Tamil Nadu, South India

N Selvakumar et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

Periodic drug resistance surveillance provides useful information on trends of drug resistance and effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) control measures. The present study determines the prevalence of drug resistance among new sputum smear positive (NSP) and previously treated (PT) pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed at public sector designated microscopy centers (DMCs) in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. In this single-stage cluster-sampling prevalence survey, 70 of 700 DMCs were randomly selected using a probability-proportional to size method. A cluster size of 24 for NSP and a varying size of 0 to 99 for PT cases were fixed for each selected DMC. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium using the economic variant of proportion sensitivity test for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ofloxacin (OFX) and kanamycin (KAN). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status was collected from patient records. From June 2011 to August 2012, 1524 NSP and 901 PT patients were enrolled. Any RMP resistance and any INH resistance were observed in 2.6% and 15.1%, and in 10.4% and 30% respectively in NSP and PT cases. Among PT patients, multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) was highest in the treatment failure (35%) group, followed by relapse (13%) and treatment after default (10%) groups. Extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) was seen in 4.3% of MDR-TB cases. Any OFX resistance was seen in 10.4% of NSP, 13.9% of PT and 29% of PT MDR-TB patients. The HIV status of the patient had no impact on drug resistance levels. RMP resistance was present in 2.6% of new and 15.1% of previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu. Rates of OFX resistance were high among NSP and PT patients, especially among those with MDR-TB, a matter of concern for development of new treatment regimens for TB.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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Grant support

This study is supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), through the World Health Organization (WHO), South-East Asia Regional Office (SEARO), New Delhi. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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