Background: Epidemiological studies to-date provided inconsistent findings on the effects of dairy consumption on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine the association of dairy consumption and its specific subtypes with CVD risk, including the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) by a metaanalysis.
Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles published up to February 2014 to identify prospective cohort studies. Random-effects model or fix-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates.
Results: A total of 22 studies were eligible for analysis. An inverse association was found between dairy consumption and overall risk of CVD [9 studies; relative risk (RR)=0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.96] and stroke (12 studies; RR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.99). However, no association was established between dairy consumption and CHD risk (12 studies; RR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.07). Stroke risk was significantly reduced by consumption of low-fat dairy (6 studies; RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.99) and cheese (4 studies; RR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.98), and CHD risk was significantly lowered by cheese consumption (7 studies; RR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.00). Restricting studies according to various inclusion criteria yielded similar results for CVD and CHD analyses, but showed attenuated results for stroke analysis. Heterogeneity across studies was found for stroke and CHD analyses, and publication bias was found for stroke analysis.
Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided further evidence supporting the beneficial effect of dairy consumption on CVD. Low-fat dairy products and cheese may protect against stroke or CHD incidence.
背景：目前有关奶制品消费和心血管疾病(CVD)发病风险的流行病学研究结论 并不一致，本研究采用meta 分析的方法探讨了奶制品与总的CVD、中风以及 冠心病发病风险的关系。方法：我们搜索了PubMed、EMBASE 和Cochrane 图书馆等数据库（截止2014 年2 月）中相关的前瞻性队列研究，采用固定效 应模型或随机效应模型计算总效应值。 结果：最终22 个研究纳入meta 分 析，奶制品消费和总的CVD 【9 个研究; 相对危险度（RR）=0.88，95%可信 区间（CI）：0.81，0.96】以及中风（12 个研究; RR=0.87, 95% CI：0.77， 0.99）呈负相关，但是没有发现奶制品消费和冠心病之间存在相关性（12 个研 究; RR=0.94，95% CI：0.82，1.07）。低脂奶制品（6 个研究；RR=0.93，95% CI：0.88，0.99）和奶酪（4 个研究；RR=0.91，95% CI：0.84，0.98）消费显 著降低中风的发病风险，奶酪（7 个研究；RR=0.84，95% CI：0.71，1.00）还 显著降低冠心病的发病风险。根据不同的入选标准限定研究后没有明显改变 CVD 和冠心病的结果，但削弱了奶制品消费和中风的关系。中风和冠心病的 研究存在异质性，中风的研究还显示存在发表偏倚。 结论：我们的meta 分析 进一步证实奶制品消费有利于预防CVD，低脂奶制品和奶酪降低了中风和冠 心病的发病风险。