Purpose: High myopia is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide, with high heritability. However, only a few causative genes have been identified, and the pathogenesis is still unclear. Our aim was to identify a novel causative gene in a family with autosomal-dominant, nonsyndromic high myopia.
Methods: Whole-genome linkage and whole-exome sequencing were conducted on the family. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied to test the functional consequence of the candidate mutation. Sanger sequencing was performed to screen for the candidate gene in other families or sporadic cases.
Results: A heterozygous missense mutation, c.871G>A (p.Glu291Lys), within P4HA2 was cosegregating with the phenotype in the family. The segregating mutation caused premature degradation of unstable messenger RNA. Subsequent screening for P4HA2 in 186 cases identified an additional four mutations in 5 cases, including the frameshift mutation c.1349_1350delGT (p.Arg451Glyfs*8), the nonsense mutation c.1327A>G (p.Lys443*), and two deleterious missense mutations, c.419A>G (p.Gln140Arg) and c.448A>G (p.Ile150Val). The missense mutation c.419A>G (p.Gln140Arg) was recurrently identified in a sporadic case and was segregating in a three-generation family.
Conclusion: P4HA2 was identified as a novel causative gene for nonsyndromic high myopia. This study also indicated that the disruption of posttranslational modifications of collagen is an important factor in the pathogenesis of high myopia.