Characterization of abnormal respiratory movements in schizophrenic, bipolar and mentally handicapped patients with typical tardive dyskinesia

Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989 Jan;4(1):55-9. doi: 10.1097/00004850-198901000-00006.


A population of 76 patients with typical tardive orofacial dyskinesia, and from which cases of respiratory disease had been excluded, were evaluated for abnormal respiratory movements. Such abnormality was present in 34 patients (45%), and was unrelated to age, sex or smoking habits. However, patients with respiratory movement disorder showed more severe orofacial dyskinesia and higher blood pressure. Putative pathophysiological processes implicated in this often unappreciated component of the tardive dyskinesia syndrome are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antipsychotic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Apnea / chemically induced
  • Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy*
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Respiration / drug effects*
  • Respiratory Sounds / drug effects
  • Schizophrenia / drug therapy*


  • Antipsychotic Agents