Characterization of two novel gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, isolated from common warts of a renal-transplant recipient

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 6;10(3):e0119154. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119154. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient's facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients' facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens, suggesting its dual tissue tropism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Gammapapillomavirus* / genetics
  • Gammapapillomavirus* / isolation & purification
  • Genes, Viral*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Warts* / genetics
  • Warts* / virology

Associated data

  • GENBANK/HG421739
  • GENBANK/HG530535

Grant support

This article is a result of doctoral research, in part financed by the European Union, European Social Fund and the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry for Education, Science and Sport in the framework of the Operational Programme for Human Resources development for the period 2007 – 2013. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.