Bioaccessibility and digestive stability of carotenoids in cooked eggs studied using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Mar 25;63(11):2956-62. doi: 10.1021/jf505615w. Epub 2015 Mar 13.


Among dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are known to protect against age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Egg yolk is rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, however, the effect of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion on yolk carotenoids is poorly understood. An in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) was used to investigate the digestive stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from boiled, fried, and scrambled eggs. Bioaccessibility but not digestive stability was significantly affected by the method of cooking. The main egg carotenoids, all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin, were stable during the digestion with average recoveries of 90 and 88%, respectively. No trans-cis isomerization of carotenoids was observed during digestion. Both all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin from scrambled eggs showed significantly lower bioaccessibility compared to boiled eggs. The results indicate that the bioaccessibility of egg carotenoids can be affected by different food preparation methods.

Keywords: TIM-1 gastrointestinal model; bioaccessibility; cooking; digestive stability; egg carotenoids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cooking
  • Digestion
  • Egg Yolk / chemistry*
  • Egg Yolk / metabolism
  • Eggs / analysis*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Isomerism
  • Lutein / chemistry*
  • Lutein / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Zeaxanthins / chemistry*
  • Zeaxanthins / metabolism


  • Zeaxanthins
  • Lutein