Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases: a full cast of critical actors in cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovasc Res. 2015 Jun 1;106(3):353-64. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvv096. Epub 2015 Mar 5.


Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerases are a highly conserved family of immunophilins. The three peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase subfamilies are cyclophilins, FK-506-binding proteins, and parvulins. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerases are expressed in multiple human tissues and regulate different cellular functions, e.g. calcium handling, protein folding, and gene expression. Moreover, these subfamilies have been shown to be consistently involved in several cardiac and vascular diseases including heart failure, arrhythmias, vascular stenosis, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. This review provides a concise description of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerases and presents an incisive selection of studies focused on their relationship with cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Cyclophilins; FKBPs; Parvulins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / enzymology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular System / drug effects
  • Cardiovascular System / enzymology*
  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology
  • Cyclophilins / metabolism
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • NIMA-Interacting Peptidylprolyl Isomerase
  • Peptidylprolyl Isomerase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Peptidylprolyl Isomerase / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction* / drug effects
  • Tacrolimus Binding Proteins / metabolism


  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • NIMA-Interacting Peptidylprolyl Isomerase
  • Cyclophilins
  • Tacrolimus Binding Proteins
  • PIN1 protein, human
  • Peptidylprolyl Isomerase