Cardiac healing after myocardial ischemia depends on the recruitment and local expansion of myeloid cells, particularly macrophages. Here we identify Reg3β as an essential regulator of macrophage trafficking to the damaged heart. Using mass spectrometry-based secretome analysis, we found that dedifferentiating cardiomyocytes release Reg3β in response to the cytokine OSM, which signals through Jak1 and Stat3. Loss of Reg3β led to a large decrease in the number of macrophages in the ischemic heart, accompanied by increased ventricular dilatation and insufficient removal of neutrophils. This defect in neutrophil removal in turn caused enhanced matrix degradation, delayed collagen deposition and increased susceptibility to cardiac rupture. Our data indicate that OSM, acting through distinct intracellular pathways, regulates both cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and cardiomyocyte-dependent regulation of macrophage trafficking. Release of OSM from infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages initiates a positive feedback loop in which OSM-induced production of Reg3β in cardiomyocytes attracts additional OSM-secreting macrophages. The activity of the feedback loop controls the degree of macrophage accumulation in the heart, which is instrumental in myocardial healing.