Usual breakfast eating habits affect response to breakfast skipping in overweight women

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Apr;23(4):750-9. doi: 10.1002/oby.21049. Epub 2015 Mar 6.


Objective: This randomized, cross-over trial was designed to investigate the metabolic and appetitive responses to skipping breakfast in overweight women who were habitual breakfast Eaters or Skippers.

Methods: Nine Eaters and nine Skippers were studied on two separate days during which subjects ate breakfast (B) or had no breakfast (NB), followed by a standard lunch meal 4 h later. Blood sampling for hormones and metabolites was performed after lunch, and appetite was rated throughout the day.

Results: Interactions between day and habitual breakfast pattern were seen for area under the curve (AUC) for insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). Both insulin (P = 0.020) and FFA (P = 0.023) AUC were higher on the NB day for Eaters but similar on both days for Skippers. Eaters had higher pre lunch hunger AUC on the NB day (P = 0.015) as well as lower pre lunch satiety AUC under both conditions (P = 0.019).

Conclusions: Overall, this study showed that the adverse effects of skipping breakfast (higher insulin and FFA responses to lunch, increased hunger, and decreased satiety) were found primarily in habitual breakfast eaters. This suggests that meal skipping may have enhanced effects in habitual Eaters due to entrainment of metabolic and appetitive regulatory systems.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Breakfast*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Energy Intake / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood
  • Feeding Behavior / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Overweight / blood*
  • Postprandial Period


  • Blood Glucose
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Insulin