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Review
. 2014 Aug;4(Suppl 3):S74-9.
doi: 10.1016/j.jceh.2014.03.045. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Free PMC article
Review

Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Ajay Duseja. J Clin Exp Hepatol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other malignancies because the prognosis in HCC is not only dependent upon the tumor stage but also on the liver function impairment due to accompanying cirrhosis liver. Various other staging systems used in HCC include the European systems [French staging system, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and the cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP)] and Asian systems [Okuda staging system, Japan integrated Staging (JIS), Tokyo score and Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI)]. Out of all the staging systems used in HCC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is probably the best because it takes in to account the tumor status (defined by tumor size and number, presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread), liver function (defined either by the Child-Pugh's class) and general health status of the patient (defined by the ECOG classification and the presence of symptoms). Since most of the extrahepatic spread in HCC occurs to lymph nodes, lungs and bones, the assessment can be done with either PET/CT or a combination of CT (Chest and abdomen) and a bone scan. This article describes the various staging systems used in HCC, guides choosing a staging system particularly in the Indian context and the assessment of extra-hepatic spread in HCC.

Keywords: AJCC, American Joint committee on cancer; BCLC; BCLC, Barcelona clinic liver cancer; CLIP, cancer of the liver Italian program; CUPI, Chinese University prognostic index; ES, extra-hepatic spread; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; ITDV, intra tumor vascular density; LCSGJ, liver cancer study group of Japan; OLT, orthotopic liver transplant; Okuda; TNM, tumor-node-metastasis; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
BCLC staging system of HCC.

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