Demographic and Socioenvironmental Characteristics of Black and White Community-Dwelling Caregivers and Care Recipients' Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

Res Gerontol Nurs. 2015 Jul-Aug;8(4):179-87. doi: 10.3928/19404921-20150310-01. Epub 2015 Mar 10.


The purpose of the current study was to compare the association between caregiver background characteristics and care recipients' behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Black and White community-dwelling family caregivers. Using logistic regression models, caregiver/care recipient dyad data from the Aging Demographics and Memory Study were used to describe associations between caregiver background characteristics (i.e., demographic and socioenvironmental variables) and care recipients' BPSD (i.e., hallucinations, delusions, agitation, depression) (N = 755). Results showed that Black caregivers were more likely to be female, younger, an adult child, have less education, and live in the South (p ≤ 0.05); they were less likely to be married. Several caregiver background characteristics were associated with care recipients' depression and agitation, but not with other BPSD. Caregiver background characteristics may play a role in the recognition and reporting of BPSD and should be considered when working with families of individuals with dementia.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / nursing*
  • Black People / statistics & numerical data*
  • Caregivers / statistics & numerical data*
  • Dementia / nursing*
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Home Nursing / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychomotor Agitation
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States
  • White People / statistics & numerical data*