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, 123 (7), 737-42

Blood Pressure and Same-Day Exposure to Air Pollution at School: Associations With Nano-Sized to Coarse PM in Children

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Blood Pressure and Same-Day Exposure to Air Pollution at School: Associations With Nano-Sized to Coarse PM in Children

Nicky Pieters et al. Environ Health Perspect.

Abstract

Background: Ultrafine particles (UFP) may contribute to the cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution, partly because of their relatively efficient alveolar deposition.

Objective: In this study, we assessed associations between blood pressure and short-term exposure to air pollution in a population of schoolchildren.

Methods: In 130 children (6-12 years of age), blood pressure was determined during two periods (spring and fall 2011). We used mixed models to study the association between blood pressure and ambient concentrations of particulate matter and ultrafine particles measured in the schools' playground.

Results: Independent of sex, age, height, and weight of the child, parental education, neighborhood socioeconomic status, fish consumption, heart rate, school, day of the week, season, wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature on the morning of examination, an interquartile range (860 particles/cm3) increase in nano-sized UFP fraction (20-30 nm) was associated with a 6.35 mmHg (95% CI: 1.56, 11.14; p = 0.01) increase in systolic blood pressure. For the total UFP fraction, systolic blood pressure was 0.79 mmHg (95% CI: 0.07, 1.51; p = 0.03) higher, but no effects on systolic blood pressure were found for the nano-sized fractions with a diameter > 100 nm, nor PM2.5, PMcoarse, and PM10. Diastolic blood pressure was not associated with any of the studied particulate mass fractions.

Conclusion: Children attending school on days with higher UFP concentrations (diameter < 100 nm) had higher systolic blood pressure. The association was dependent on UFP size, and there was no association with the PM2.5 mass concentration.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Concentration range of the accumulated UFP fractions (left y-axis) and temperature (right y-axis) from 0800 to 1000 hours on the day of clinical examination.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Concentration range for PM2.5, PMcoarse, and PM10 from 0800 to 1000 hours on the day of clinical examination.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and different UFP and PM fractions. Estimates (with 95% CI) represent the difference in systolic blood pressure for an IQR (Table 2) increase in the corresponding UFP or PM fraction. Circles show results adjusted for sex, age, height and weight of the child, parental education, neighborhood SES, fish consumption, heart rate, school, day of the week, season, wind speed, relative humidity, temperature on the morning of examination, and the interaction between season and temperature. Triangles are additionally adjusted for PM2.5 (only for the different UFP fractions).

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