Assessment of sleep bruxism, orthodontic treatment need, orofacial dysfunctions and salivary biomarkers in asthmatic children

Arch Oral Biol. 2015 May;60(5):698-705. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.02.011. Epub 2015 Feb 20.


Objective: To evaluate the sleep bruxism, malocclusions, orofacial dysfunctions and salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase in asthmatic children.

Design: 108 7-9-yr-old children were selected from Policlinic Santa Teresinha Doutor Antonio Haddad Dib (asthmatics, n=53) and from public schools (controls, n=55), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was confirmed by parental report of grinding sounds and the presence of shiny and polish facets on incisors and/or first permanent molars. The index of orthodontic treatment need was used for occlusion evaluation. Orofacial dysfunctions were evaluated using the nordic orofacial test-screening (NOT-S). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were expressed as "awakening response" (AR), calculated as the difference between levels immediately after awakening and 30 min after waking, and "diurnal decline" (DD), calculated as the difference between levels at 30 min after waking and at bedtime. Data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk/Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square, unpaired t test/Mann-Whitney and paired t/Wilcoxon tests.

Results: Sleep bruxism was more prevalent in children with asthma than controls (47.2% vs. 27.3%, p<0.05). Asthmatics had higher scores of NOT-S total and interview (p<0.05). Dysfunctions on sensory function and chewing and swallowing were more frequent in asthmatics (p<0.05). Salivary cortisol AR on weekend was significantly higher for asthmatics (p<0.05). Salivary cortisol DD was significantly higher on weekday than weekend for controls (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in alpha-amylase values in and between groups.

Conclusions: The presence of asthma in children was associated with sleep bruxism, negative perception of sensory, chewing and swallowing functions, and higher concentrations of salivary cortisol on weekend.

Keywords: Alpha-amylase; Asthma; Bruxism; Child; Cortisol.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amylases / metabolism
  • Asthma / complications*
  • Asthma / metabolism*
  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Deglutition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / metabolism
  • Male
  • Orthodontics, Corrective*
  • Prevalence
  • Saliva / chemistry*
  • Sleep Bruxism / epidemiology*


  • Biomarkers
  • Amylases
  • Hydrocortisone