A comprehensive review of pesticides and the immune dysregulation: mechanisms, evidence and consequences

Toxicol Mech Methods. 2015;25(4):258-78. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2015.1020182.


Nowadays, in many communities, there is a growing concern about possible adverse effects of pesticides on human health. Reports indicate that during environmental or occupational exposure, pesticides can exert some intense adverse effects on human health through transient or permanent alteration of the immune system. There is evidence on the relation between pesticide-induced immune alteration and prevalence of diseases associated with alterations of the immune response. In the present study, direct immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption and antigenicity have been introduced as the main mechanisms working with pesticides-induced immune dysregulation. Moreover, the evidence on the relationship between pesticide exposure, dysregulation of the immune system and predisposition to different types of psychiatric disorders, cancers, allergies, autoimmune and infectious diseases are criticized.

Keywords: Allergy; autoimmune disease; cancer; immune alteration; infectious disease; pesticide; psychiatric disorder; review.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Immune System / drug effects*
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects
  • Pesticides / toxicity*


  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Pesticides