Obesity is a pandemic disease associated with many metabolic alterations and involves several organs and systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) appears to be a key regulator of energy homeostasis and metabolism. Here we show that specific deletion of the ECS synthesizing enzyme, NAPE-PLD, in adipocytes induces obesity, glucose intolerance, adipose tissue inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. We report that Napepld-deleted mice present an altered browning programme and are less responsive to cold-induced browning, highlighting the essential role of NAPE-PLD in regulating energy homeostasis and metabolism in the physiological state. Our results indicate that these alterations are mediated by a shift in gut microbiota composition that can partially transfer the phenotype to germ-free mice. Together, our findings uncover a role of adipose tissue NAPE-PLD on whole-body metabolism and provide support for targeting NAPE-PLD-derived bioactive lipids to treat obesity and related metabolic disorders.