Effects of Legume-Enriched Diet on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Individuals at Risk for Diabetes: A Crossover Study

J Am Coll Nutr. 2016;35(1):31-40. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.931262. Epub 2015 Mar 11.


Aims: First-degree relatives of patients with diabetes are at high risk for chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our purpose was to determine the effects of consuming 4 servings of legumes per week on lipid profiles, glycemic indices, and blood pressure of participants with family history of diabetes over 6 weeks of intervention.

Methods: A total of 26 first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes (14 women and 12 men) participated in this randomized crossover clinical trial study. Participants were randomly assigned to a legume-enriched diet or habitual diet for 6 weeks. Paired t test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to compare data for the 2 experimental diets.

Results: The mean ± SE of legumes intake during the legume phase was 111.12 ± 10.53 g/day that was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the amounts of legumes during habitual diet (50.73 ± 7.10 g/d). Percentage changes for cardiovascular disease risk factors did not change significantly following 6 weeks of legume consumption.

Conclusions: Consumption of 4 servings of legumes per week had no significant effect on anthropometric measurements, glycemic indices, and lipid profiles of participants with family history of diabetes, though it could reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure at a marginally significant level.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; first degree relatives of patients with diabetes; pulses.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / prevention & control
  • Diet*
  • Fabaceae*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Seeds*


  • Lipids