Genotypic variation in the uptake, accumulation, and translocation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate by twenty cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015 Jun;116:50-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.02.038. Epub 2015 Mar 10.


Agricultural soil in China contains high levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), especially in paddy-field soil of Guangdong province of China, but the accumulation and translocation of DEHP by rice (Oryza sativa L.) remains unknown. In the present study, twenty rice cultivars were cultivated in paddy soil spiked with DEHP, and variations in DEHP accumulation and translocation among various cultivars were investigated. Our results showed that DEHP concentrations in roots and shoots of different rice cultivars at four growth stages (i.e., ripening, tillering, jointing, and flowering stages) varied greatly from 0.26 to 11.8 mg/kg (dry weight, dw) and 0.40 to 7.58 mg/kg (dw), respectively. No obvious change over time was observed. The greatest variation in DEHP concentrations among the rice cultivars occurred at ripening stage, whereas the lowest variation at flowering stage. During ripening stage, the largest variation in DEHP concentrations among cultivars were observed in stems (varying from 0.35 to 13.2 mg/kg), whereas the least one was observed in roots (ranging from 1.01 to 5.72 mg/kg). Significant differences in DEHP concentrations in the roots, stems, leaves and grains of most rice cultivars were found. The translocation factors of DEHP from roots to stems or stems to leaves were higher than those from shoots to grains. Overall, cultivars Tianfengyou 316, Wuyou 308, and Peizataifeng, which contained low levels of DEHP in grains but high levels in shoots, were ideal cultivars for simultaneous production of safe food and phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

Keywords: Accumulation; Cultivar; Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; Rice; Translocation; Variation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • China
  • Diethylhexyl Phthalate / metabolism*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Oryza / growth & development
  • Oryza / metabolism*
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Plant Shoots / metabolism
  • Soil Pollutants / metabolism*


  • Soil Pollutants
  • Diethylhexyl Phthalate