Explosive tandem and segmental duplications of multigenic families in Eucalyptus grandis

Genome Biol Evol. 2015 Mar 13;7(4):1068-81. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evv048.


Plant organisms contain a large number of genes belonging to numerous multigenic families whose evolution size reflects some functional constraints. Sequences from eight multigenic families, involved in biotic and abiotic responses, have been analyzed in Eucalyptus grandis and compared with Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transcription factor families APETALA 2 (AP2)/ethylene responsive factor and GRAS, two auxin transporter families PIN-FORMED and AUX/LAX, two oxidoreductase families (ascorbate peroxidases [APx] and Class III peroxidases [CIII Prx]), and two families of protective molecules late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and DNAj were annotated in expert and exhaustive manner. Many recent tandem duplications leading to the emergence of species-specific gene clusters and the explosion of the gene numbers have been observed for the AP2, GRAS, LEA, PIN, and CIII Prx in E. grandis, while the APx, the AUX/LAX and DNAj are conserved between species. Although no direct evidence has yet demonstrated the roles of these recent duplicated genes observed in E. grandis, this could indicate their putative implications in the morphological and physiological characteristics of E. grandis, and be the key factor for the survival of this nondormant species. Global analysis of key families would be a good criterion to evaluate the capabilities of some organisms to adapt to environmental variations.

Keywords: chromosomal localization; gene annotation; gene duplication; gene structures; multigenic families; phylogenetic analysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Eucalyptus / genetics*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Gene Duplication*
  • Genes, Plant*
  • HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • Multigene Family*
  • Peroxidases / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Segmental Duplications, Genomic
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Carrier Proteins
  • HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Peroxidases