Efficient Production of 2,5-Diketo-d-Gluconate via Heterologous Expression of 2-Ketogluconate Dehydrogenase in Gluconobacter japonicus

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 May 15;81(10):3552-60. doi: 10.1128/AEM.04176-14. Epub 2015 Mar 13.


2,5-Diketo-d-gluconate (2,5DKG) is a compound that can be the intermediate for d-tartrate and also vitamin C production. Although Gluconobacter oxydans NBRC3293 produces 2,5DKG from d-glucose via d-gluconate and 2-keto-d-gluconate (2KG), with accumulation of the product in the culture medium, the efficiency of 2,5DKG production is unsatisfactory because there is a large amount of residual d-gluconate at the end of the biotransformation process. Oxidation of 2KG to 2,5DKG is catalyzed by a membrane-bound flavoprotein-cytochrome c complex: 2-keto-gluconate dehydrogenase (2KGDH). Here, we studied the kgdSLC genes encoding 2KGDH in G. oxydans NBRC3293 to improve 2,5DKG production by Gluconobacter spp. The kgdS, kgdL, and kgdC genes correspond to the small, large, and cytochrome subunits of 2KGDH, respectively. The kgdSLC genes were cloned into a broad-host-range vector carrying a DNA fragment of the putative promoter region of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase gene of G. oxydans for expression in Gluconobacter spp. According to our results, 2KGDH that was purified from the recombinant Gluconobacter cells showed characteristics nearly the same as those reported previously. We also expressed the kgdSLC genes in a mutant strain of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3271 (formerly Gluconobacter dioxyacetonicus IFO3271) engineered to produce 2KG efficiently from a mixture of d-glucose and d-gluconate. This mutant strain consumed almost all of the starting materials (d-glucose and d-gluconate) to produce 2,5DKG quantitatively as a seemingly unique metabolite. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Gluconobacter strain that produces 2,5DKG efficiently and homogeneously.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases / genetics*
  • Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • Gene Expression*
  • Gluconates / metabolism*
  • Gluconobacter / classification
  • Gluconobacter / enzymology
  • Gluconobacter / genetics
  • Gluconobacter / metabolism*
  • Metabolic Engineering
  • Molecular Sequence Data


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Gluconates
  • 2-ketogluconate
  • 2,5-diketogluconate
  • Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases
  • gluconate 2-dehydrogenase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB985494