Bisphenol-A affects male fertility via fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa

Sci Rep. 2015 Mar 16:5:9169. doi: 10.1038/srep09169.


The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Embryonic Development / drug effects
  • Endocrine Disruptors / pharmacology*
  • Fertility / drug effects*
  • Fertilization / drug effects
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Phenols / pharmacology*
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Protein Interaction Mapping
  • Protein Interaction Maps
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sperm Capacitation / drug effects
  • Sperm Motility / drug effects
  • Spermatozoa / drug effects*
  • Spermatozoa / metabolism*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Phenols
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • bisphenol A