In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria

Trop Biomed. 2014 Dec;31(4):680-8.


Antimicrobial activities of plants have long been evaluated for their promising use as antimicrobial agent and in minimizing the unwanted resistance effects of microorganisms. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall crude extracts against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vitro. The screening test was determined by disc diffusion technique using sterile filter paper discs impregnated with 1 mg/ disc (50 mg/ml) aqueous and ethanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls tested on five selected MDR bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the twofold serial micro dilution technique at concentration ranging from 5.00 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub culturing the microtitre wells showing no turbidity on the agar plate to obtain the MBC value. Both extracts showed substantial inhibitory effects against methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A slightly reduced inhibitory zone diameter was observed with MDR Acinetobacter sp. while no inhibitory effect was displayed among the extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) K. pneumoniae and ESBL E. coli isolates. A significant difference in the zone sizes between both extracts was only observed in MRSA (p < 0.05). The MIC values ranged from 0.08 mg/ml to 0.63 mg/ml for aqueous and ethanol extracts against MRSA, MRCoNS and MDR Acinetobacter sp. while their MBC to MIC ratio values were 2 and less. The Q. infectoria gall extracts have shown very promising in vitro antibacterial activities and may be considered as a potentially good source of antimicrobial agent especially against MDR Gram positive bacteria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Complex Mixtures / isolation & purification
  • Complex Mixtures / pharmacology
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Microbial Viability / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Quercus / chemistry*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Complex Mixtures
  • Plant Extracts