Association between diabetes mellitus and gastroesophageal reflux disease: A meta-analysis

World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Mar 14;21(10):3085-92. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i10.3085.


Aim: To investigate whether there is a link between diabetes mellitus (DM) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Methods: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science databases, from their respective inceptions until December 31, 2013, for articles evaluating the relationship between DM and GERD. Studies were selected for analysis based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from each study on the basis of predefined items. A meta-analysis was performed to compare the odds ratio (OR) in DM between individuals with and without GERD using a fixed effect or random effect model, depending on the absence or presence of significant heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were used to identify sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's test. To evaluate the results, we also performed a sensitivity analysis.

Results: When the electronic database and hand searches were combined, a total of nine eligible articles involving 9067 cases and 81 968 controls were included in our meta-analysis. Based on the random-effects model, these studies identified a significant association between DM and the risk of GERD (overall OR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.36-1.91; P = 0.003). Subgroup analyses indicated that this result persisted in studies on populations from Eastern countries (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.38-2.12; P = 0.003) and in younger patients (mean age < 50 years) (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.22-2.37; P = 0.001). No significant publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis using Begg(')s test (P = 0.175). The sensitivity analysis also confirmed the stability of our results.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that patients with DM are at greater risk of GERD than those who do not have DM.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Esophagitis / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / diagnosis
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors